Saturday, May 23, 2020
Taliesin WestÃ began not as a grand scheme, but a simple need. Frank Lloyd Wright and his apprentices had traveled a long distance from his Taliesin school in Spring Green, Wisconsin to build a resort hotel in Chandler, Arizona. Because they were far from home, they set up camp on a stretch of the Sonoran Desert near the construction site outside of Scottsdale. Wright fell in love with the desert. He wrote in 1935 that the desert was a grand garden, with its rim of arid mountains spotted like the leopards skin or tattooed with amazing patterns of creation. Its sheer beauty of space and pattern does not exist, I think, in the world, Wright proclaimed. This great desert garden is Arizonas chief asset. Building Taliesin West The early encampment at Taliesin West contained little more than temporary shelters made of wood and canvas. However, Frank Lloyd Wright was inspired by the dramatic, rugged landscape. He envisioned an elaborate complex of buildings that would embody his concept of organic architecture. He wanted the buildings to evolve from and blend with the environment. In 1937, the desert school known as Taliesin West was launched. Following in the tradition of Taliesin in Wisconsin, Wrights apprentices studied, worked, and lived in shelters they crafted using materials native to the land. Taliesin is a Welsh word meaning shining brow. Both of Wrights Taliesin homesteads hug the contours of the earth like a shining brow on the hilly landscape. Organic Design at Taliesin West Architectural historian G. E. Kidder Smith reminds us that Wright taught his students to design in kinship with the environment, admonishing students, for instance, not to build on top of a hill in dominance, but beside it in partnership. This is the essence of organic architecture. Lugging stone and sand, the students constructed buildings that seemed to grow from the earth and the McDowell Mountains. Wood and steel beams supported translucent canvas roofs. Natural stone combined with glass and plastic to create surprising shapes and textures. Interior space flowed naturally into the open desert. For awhile, Taliesin West was a retreat from the harsh Wisconsin winters. Eventually, air conditioning was added and students stayed through the fall and spring. Taliesin West Today At Taliesin West, the desert is never still. Over the years, Wright and his students made many changes, and the school continues to evolve. Today, the 600 acre complex includes a drafting studio, Wrights former architectural office and living quarters, a dining room and kitchen, several theaters, housing for apprentices and staff, a student workshop, and expansive grounds with pools, terraces and gardens. Experimental structures built by apprentice architects dot the landscape. Taliesin West is home of the Frank Lloyd Wright School of Architecture, whose alumni become Taliesin Fellows. Taliesin West is also the headquarters of the FLW Foundation, a powerful overseer of Wrights properties, mission, and legacy. In 1973 the American Institute of Architects (AIA) gave the property its Twenty-five Year Award. On its fiftieth anniversary in 1987, Taliesin West won special recognition from the U.S. House of Representatives, which called the complex the highest achievement in American artistic and architectural expression. According to the American Institute of Architects (AIA), Taliesin West is one of 17 buildings in the United States that exemplify Wrights contribution to American architecture. Next to Wisconsin, gathering of the waters, Wright has written, Arizona, arid zone, is my favorite State. Each very different from the other, but something individual in them both not to be found elsewhere. Sources Frank Lloyd Wright On Architecture: Selected Writings (1894-1940), Frederick Gutheim, ed., Grossets Universal Library, 1941, pp. 197, 159Source Book of American Architecture by G. E. Kidder Smith, Princeton Architectural Press, 1996, p. 390The Future of Architecture by Frank Lloyd Wright, New American Library, Horizon Press, 1953, p. 21
Tuesday, May 12, 2020
Sample details Pages: 6 Words: 1788 Downloads: 2 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Finance Essay Type Analytical essay Did you like this example? To enable people and businesses throughout the world to realize their full potential The company, founded in 1975, has worked to achieve its mission through developing and marketing of software and hardware and providing services and solutions that delivers greater convenience and add value to peoples lives. Microsofts presence is throughout the world with offices in more than 100 countries. Microsoft generates revenue by developing a larger range of software products and giving support services for various types of computing devices. Few to name are operating systems for various computers, server applications, business solutions applications, software development tools and video games. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Financial Analysis And Competition Of Microsoft Finance Essay" essay for you Create order It provides support services for its products (customer retention policy) and also gives training to computer system developers. There are a number of Microsoft certified specialized courses. Designing hardware is also a part of their job. Few examples are Xbox 360 gaming, the Zune digital music, and Microsoft personal computer (PC) hardware products. It earns revenues through license fee for software, even as it develops and delivers cloud-based computing services. (https://www.microsoft.com/investor/default.aspx ) Examples of cloud-based services which Microsoft currently offers are: ÃÆ'Ã ¢Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬ÃâÃ ¢ Bing, its Internet search service; ÃÆ'Ã ¢Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬ÃâÃ ¢ Windows Live Essentials suite, it allows users to upload and organize photos, make movies, communicate via email and messaging and enhance online safety; and ÃÆ'Ã ¢Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬ÃâÃ ¢ Xbox LIVE service, it enables online gaming, social networking, and content access. Current cloud-based services (for business users) are: ÃÆ'Ã ¢Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬ÃâÃ ¢ Microsoft Office Web Apps (online companions to Microsoft Word, Excel, PowerPoint, and OneNote) ÃÆ'Ã ¢Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬ÃâÃ ¢ Business Productivity Online Suite (Offering communications and collaboration solution) ÃÆ'Ã ¢Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬ÃâÃ ¢ Microsoft Dynamics Online family of customer relationship management (CRM) and enterprise resources planning services. Also, Microsoft is in research and development of advanced technologies. Microsoft believes in delivering breakthrough innovation through their integrated software platform in order to meet their customers need and for future growth opportunity. Microsoft focuses on long term growth by improving customer feedback and delivering new products and services and creating new opportunities for its existing partners. Their prime focus is to build on this foundation. OPERATING SEGMENTS Microsoft operates its business in five segments: Windows Windows Live Server and Tools Online Services Microsoft Business Entertainment Devices These segments are very cleverly chosen. They enable Microsoft to easily achieve its Mission. Windows Windows Live Division The overall responsibility of Windows Windows Live Division, also termer as Windows Division, is the development and marketing of the Windows operating system, Windows Live and Internet Explorer. Its revenue growth is mostly correlated with the growth of the PC market, as the original equipment manufacturer (OEM) distribution channel (e.g., Dell, HP, Lenovo, Compaq, HCL, Sony, Toshiba etc) accounts for approximately 80% of total Windows Division revenue. Some of the factors impacting OEM revenue are: ÃÆ'Ã ¢Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬ÃâÃ ¢ Hardware market changes ÃÆ'Ã ¢Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬ÃâÃ ¢ Promotions and pricing changes: Due to variation associated with OEM channel shifts from local system builders to large, multinational OEMs. Windows Division offerings Premium Operating systems Those which contain additional functionality (above standard) and are sold at premium rate Online software and services made available through Windows Live. Versions of Windows operating system: Windows 7, Windows Vista, Windows XP Home and other older versions as Windows 98, Windows 2000 etc. Competition The competitors for Windows operating system are various commercial software products available in the market, offered by some of the well-established companies, including Apple and Google, and from the Linux operating system. Now, Linux (derived from Unix) is available to its users free of any charges. It is one of the first of its kind Open Source operating system. Some other competitors for Microsoft are: Apple Google Mozilla Opera Software Company All of the above offers browsers in competition to Windows Internet Explorer. Server and Tools Server and Tools segment develops and markets and provideservices and solutions around Server software Software developer tools Products and Services: Windows Server operating system Windows Azure Microsoft SQL Server SQL Azure Visual Studio Silverlight System Center products Biz Talk Server Microsoft Consulting Services Premier product support services Competition Computer manufacturers such as Hewlett-Packard, IBM, and Oracle are major players along with Microsoft in this field. Online Services Division The Online Services Division (OSD) includes online information offerings. Examples are Bing, MSN portals and channels. Microsoft majorly earns revenue from online advertising, including search, display, and advertiser and publisher tools. Products and Services: Bing Microsoft adCenter MSN and Atlas online tools (advertisers and publishers). Competition Major competitors for OSD division are Google, Yahoo!, and many other Web sites that provide content and online ad offerings to its users. Microsoft Business Division Microsoft Business Division (MBD) majorly revolves around the following two: Microsoft Office system Microsoft Dynamics business solutions. 90 % revenue of Microsoft Business Division is from Microsoft Office System. Products and Services: Microsoft Office Microsoft SharePoint Microsoft Dynamics ERP and CRM Microsoft Office Web Apps Competition Competitors to the Microsoft Office system include Corel, Adobe, Apple, Google, IBM, Novell, Oracle, Red Hat, Zoho, and other local application developers in Europe and Asia. Infor and Sage compete with Microsofts Dynamic Business solution in both small and midsized markets. Oracle and SAP are solution providers to large size organizations. Entertainment and Devices Division The Entertainment and Devices Division is responsible for developing and marketing: the Xbox 360 platform which includes the Xbox 360 gaming and entertainment console with accessories, third-party games, and Xbox LIVE services. Products and Services: Xbox 360 console and games; Xbox LIVE; Windows Phone; Windows Embedded device operating system; and numerous consumer software and hardware products (such as Mac Office, mice, and keyboards); and Windows Automotive. Competition Competitors of entertainment and devices vary in size from very small companies to very large corporations (with substantial financial and marketing resources). Microsofts Xbox gaming and entertainment business competes Nintendo and Sony. Windows Phone faces competition from a large number of players across the globe. Few to name are Apple, Google, Nokia, QUALCOMM, Research In Motion, and Symbian. (https://www.microsoft.com/en/us/sitemap.aspx) FINANCIAL HIGHLIGHTS ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ Year Ended JuneÃâÃ 30, ÃâÃ 2010 ÃâÃ ÃâÃ 2009 ÃâÃ ÃâÃ 2008 ÃâÃ ÃâÃ 2007 ÃâÃ ÃâÃ 2006 ÃâÃ Revenue ÃâÃ $ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ 62,484 ÃâÃ ÃâÃ $ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ 58,437 ÃâÃ ÃâÃ $ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ 60,420 ÃâÃ ÃâÃ $ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ 51,122 ÃâÃ ÃâÃ $ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ 44,282 ÃâÃ Operating income ÃâÃ $ 24,098 ÃâÃ ÃâÃ $ 20,363 ÃâÃ ÃâÃ $ 22,271 ÃâÃ (c) ÃâÃ $ 18,438 ÃâÃ ÃâÃ $ 16,380 ÃâÃ Net income ÃâÃ $ 18,760 ÃâÃ ÃâÃ $ 14,569 ÃâÃ ÃâÃ $ 17,681 ÃâÃ (c) ÃâÃ $ 14,065 ÃâÃ ÃâÃ $ 12,599 ÃâÃ Diluted earnings per share ÃâÃ $ 2.10 ÃâÃ ÃâÃ $ 1.62 ÃâÃ ÃâÃ $ 1.87 ÃâÃ ÃâÃ $ 1.42 ÃâÃ ÃâÃ $ 1.20 ÃâÃ Cash dividends declared per share ÃâÃ $ 0.52 ÃâÃ ÃâÃ $ 0.52 ÃâÃ ÃâÃ $ 0.44 ÃâÃ ÃâÃ $ 0.40 ÃâÃ ÃâÃ $ 0.35 ÃâÃ Cash and cash equivalents and short-term investments ÃâÃ $ 36,788 ÃâÃ ÃâÃ $ 31,447 ÃâÃ ÃâÃ $ 23,662 ÃâÃ ÃâÃ $ 23,411 ÃâÃ ÃâÃ $ 34,161 ÃâÃ Total assets ÃâÃ $ 86,113 ÃâÃ ÃâÃ $ 77,888 ÃâÃ ÃâÃ $ 72,793 ÃâÃ ÃâÃ $ 63,171 ÃâÃ ÃâÃ $ 69,597 ÃâÃ Long-term obligations ÃâÃ $ 13,791 ÃâÃ (a) ÃâÃ $ 11,296 ÃâÃ (b) ÃâÃ $ 6,621 ÃâÃ ÃâÃ $ 8,320 ÃâÃ ÃâÃ $ 7,051 ÃâÃ Stockholders equity ÃâÃ $ 46,175 ÃâÃ ÃâÃ $ 39,558 ÃâÃ ÃâÃ $ 36,286 ÃâÃ ÃâÃ $ 31,097 ÃâÃ ÃâÃ $ 40,104 ÃâÃ Includes $1.25 billion of convertible debt securities issued in June 2010 and $3.75 billion of debt securities issued in May 2009. See Note 12 Debt in the Notes to Financial Statements. (b) Includes $3.75 billion of debt securities issued in May 2009. See Note 12 Debt in the Notes to Financial Statements. (c) Includes charge of $1.4 billion (ÃÆ'Ã ¢Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¡ÃâÃ ¬899 million) related to the fine imposed by the European Commission in February 2008. (* All figures in Million) (Source Annual report, Microsoft Corporation, 2010) Financial Ratios: Current Ratio : Total current Asset / Total Current Liability = $ 55,676 m / $ 26, 147 m = 2.13 This is also termed as working capital ratio. This ratio gives an idea of how well the company is in a position to pay back its liabilities (short term vs. long term). Compared to Microsofts ratio, Google has a Current ratio of around 10 followed by Adobe, which has a ratio of around 3.5. Quick Ratio : ( current Asset Inventory ) / Current Liability = ($ 55,676 $ 740) m / $ 26, 147 m = 2.1 Quick ratio tells a companys ability to meet its short term liabilities with its most liquid assets. Compared to Microsofts ratio, here again, Google has a Current ratio of around 12 followed by Adobe, which has a ratio of around 4 Cash Ratio: Total Cash / Current Liability = $ 36,788 m / 26,147 m =1.4 Debt to Equity ratio : (Short term debt + long term debt)/ Total stakeholders equity = $ 5,939m/ $ 46,175 m = 0.128 Here, amongst Microsofts competitors, Dell has the highest Debt to Equity ratio of 4.It measures a companys financial leverage by dividing its liabilities to stake holders equity. Financial Leverage : Total Asset / Total Equity =$ 86,113 m / $ 46,175 m = 1.86 Net Profit Margin : Net income / Net revenue = $ 18,760 m / $ 62,484 m =0.30 Return On Asset (ROA) : Net income / Average total asset ( average of current year and previous year) = $ 18,760 m / $ 82,000 m =0.228 =22.8% ROA for Microsoft is highest amongst its competitors followed by google, which has around 19%.It says, how profitable a company is relative to its assets. This makes Microsoft a better investment option for investors. Return On Equity (ROE): Net Income / Average total Equity ( Average of current year and previous year) =$ 18,760 m / $ 42,866 m =0.437 (All calculations are based on financial results of Microsoft for 2010, available at public domain of Microsoft, for its stakeholders) Balance Sheet (In millions) ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ JuneÃâÃ 30, ÃâÃ 2010 ÃâÃ ÃâÃ 2009 ÃâÃ Assets ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ Current assets: ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ Cash and cash equivalents ÃâÃ $ 5,505 ÃâÃ ÃâÃ $ 6,076 ÃâÃ Short-term investments (including securities loaned of $62 and $1,540) ÃâÃ ÃâÃ 31,283 ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ 25,371 ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ Total cash, cash equivalents, and short-term investments ÃâÃ ÃâÃ 36,788 ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ 31,447 ÃâÃ Accounts receivable, net of allowance for doubtful accounts of $375 and $451 ÃâÃ ÃâÃ 13,014 ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ 11,192 ÃâÃ Inventories ÃâÃ ÃâÃ 740 ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ 717 ÃâÃ Deferred income taxes ÃâÃ ÃâÃ 2,184 ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ 2,213 ÃâÃ Other ÃâÃ ÃâÃ 2,950 ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ 3,711 ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ Total current assets ÃâÃ ÃâÃ 55,676 ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ 49,280 ÃâÃ Property and equipment, net of accumulated depreciation of $8,629 and $7,547 ÃâÃ ÃâÃ 7,630 ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ 7,535 ÃâÃ Equity and other investments ÃâÃ ÃâÃ 7,754 ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ 4,933 ÃâÃ Goodwill ÃâÃ ÃâÃ 12,394 ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ 12,503 ÃâÃ Intangible assets, net ÃâÃ ÃâÃ 1,158 ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ 1,759 ÃâÃ Deferred income taxes ÃâÃ ÃâÃ 0 ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ 279 ÃâÃ Other long-term assets ÃâÃ ÃâÃ 1,501 ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ 1,599 ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ Total assets ÃâÃ $ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ 86,113 ÃâÃ ÃâÃ $ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ 77,888 ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ Liabilities and stockholders equity ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ Current liabilities: ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ Accounts payable ÃâÃ $ 4,025 ÃâÃ ÃâÃ $ 3,324 ÃâÃ Short-term debt ÃâÃ ÃâÃ 1,000 ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ 2,000 ÃâÃ Accrued compensation ÃâÃ ÃâÃ 3,283 ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ 3,156 ÃâÃ Income taxes ÃâÃ ÃâÃ 1,074 ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ 725 ÃâÃ Short-term unearned revenue ÃâÃ ÃâÃ 13,652 ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ 13,003 ÃâÃ Securities lending payable ÃâÃ ÃâÃ 182 ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ 1,684 ÃâÃ Other ÃâÃ ÃâÃ 2,931 ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ 3,142 ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ Total current liabilities ÃâÃ ÃâÃ 26,147 ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ 27,034 ÃâÃ Long-term debt ÃâÃ ÃâÃ 4,939 ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ 3,746 ÃâÃ Long-term unearned revenue ÃâÃ ÃâÃ 1,178 ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ 1,281 ÃâÃ Deferred income taxes ÃâÃ ÃâÃ 229 ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ 0 ÃâÃ Other long-term liabilities ÃâÃ ÃâÃ 7,445 ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ 6,269 ÃâÃ Commitments and contingencies ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ Stockholders equity: ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ Common stock and paid-in capital shares authorized 24,000; outstanding 8,668 and 8,908 ÃâÃ ÃâÃ 62,856 ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ 62,382 ÃâÃ Retained deficit, including accumulated other comprehensive income of $1,055 and $969 ÃâÃ ÃâÃ (16,681 ) ÃâÃ ÃâÃ (22,824 ) ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ Total stockholders equity ÃâÃ ÃâÃ 46,175 ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ 39,558 ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ Total liabilities and stockholders equity ÃâÃ $ 86,113 ÃâÃ ÃâÃ $ 77,888 ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ (# Microsoft Financial Statement, 2010) STOCK PERFORMANCE COMPARISON OF 5 YEAR CUMULATIVE TOTAL RETURN* Among Microsoft Corporation, The SP 500 Index And The NASDAQ Computer Index ÃâÃ ÃâÃ 6/05 ÃâÃ ÃâÃ 6/06 ÃâÃ ÃâÃ 6/07 ÃâÃ ÃâÃ 6/08 ÃâÃ ÃâÃ 6/09 ÃâÃ ÃâÃ 6/10 ÃâÃ Microsoft Corporation ÃâÃ 100.00 ÃâÃ 95.03 ÃâÃ 121.86 ÃâÃ 115.40 ÃâÃ 102.15 ÃâÃ 100.77 SP 500 ÃâÃ 100.00 ÃâÃ 108.63 ÃâÃ 131.00 ÃâÃ 113.81 ÃâÃ 83.98 ÃâÃ 96.09 NASDAQ Computer ÃâÃ 100.00 ÃâÃ 100.43 ÃâÃ 126.57 ÃâÃ 117.26 ÃâÃ 98.08 ÃâÃ 119.38 (# Microsoft Financial Statement, 2010) As can be clearly seen, No Agency issues or contingent liabilities could be identified from the financial statements of the company. A company finances its assets through issue of bonds and stocks. Bonds: Bond is a debt instrument. Through bonds, an investor lends money to an entity (corporate or governmental). In return the entity pays the lender a fixed amount of interest. Bonds are issued for a defined period of time. Stocks: Stocks represent the original capital invested by the founders of the company. Later, stocks are divided into shares, having a certain face value. Now, there are two types of stocks, Common stock and Preferred stock. A common stock carries voting rights where as a preferred stock typically does not carry voting rights. Using these two instruments, a company can raise any amount of money to finance its assets. A company, since has many means of financing its assets, it also has a number of obligations to meet. A company usually splits its liabilities into short term (current liability) and long term. A liability must be settled through the payment of an asset in some time in future. A liability which is expected to be liquidated with in a companys operating cycle or one year is called short term liability. Now, any other left over liability which is not expected to be paid in a year are termed as long term liability. ( Bragg.M. Steven., The ultimate accountants reference, 2nd edition, 2006)
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Physical unattractiveness, deformity, and disfigurement have been associated with evil since antiquity. In the Iliad, Homer described the wicked Thersites as possessing thin hair over a Ã¢â¬Å"misshapen head,Ã¢â¬ with one blinking eye and a lame leg. Physiognomy (the Ã¢â¬Å"scienceÃ¢â¬ of reading personality characteristics into facial features) traces its practice to HomerÃ¢â¬â¢s Greece. We will write a custom essay sample on Physical Attractiveness and Criminal Behavior or any similar topic only for you Order Now When Socrates was convicted for heresy and the corruption of youth in the fifth century B. C. , a physiognomist charged that his face betrayed a brutal disposition. Greek culture embraced the notion that mind and body were interconnected; if a sound mind went together with a sound body, the implication was that a twisted mind resided in a deformed body. Aristotle confirmed this view in his Metaphysics when he reasoned that the essence of the body is contained in the soul. These opinions were ensconced into law in medieval Europe. Among those accused of demonic possession, ecclesiastical edicts interpreted large warts and moles on the skin as physical signs of the entry point of the devil into the soul (Einstadter and Henry 1995). Secular law directed jurists to convict the uglier of two people who were under equal suspicion for a crime (Wilson and Herrnstein 1985). In an echo of these sentiments some years later, ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s Cassius, in Julius Caesar (Act I, Scene II), is judged a dangerous man by his Ã¢â¬Å"lean and hungry look. Ã¢â¬ The link between unattractiveness and criminal behavior remained alive and well in 20th-century American popular culture. In his famous comic strip and in the movies it inspired, cartoonist Chester Gould sharply contrasted the square-jawed, clean-cut good looks of detective Dick Tracy with cutthroat criminals like the flat-headed Ã¢â¬Å"Flattop,Ã¢â¬ the pointy-snouted Ã¢â¬Å"Mole,Ã¢â¬ the wrinkle-cheeked Ã¢â¬Å"Pruneface,Ã¢â¬ and the big-bottomed Ã¢â¬Å"Pear Shape. Ã¢â¬ Hollywood imitated science in Johnny Handsome (1989), a feature film about a robber with grotesque facial deformities who reforms after receiving extensive cosmetic surgery. Some of the earliest criminological researchers shared this thinking. Physiognomy persisted throughout the 18th century, most notably in the work of Swiss scholar Johan Casper Lavater, whose influential Physiognomical Fragments appeared in 1775. One hundred years later, Italian prison physician Cesare Lombroso published Criminal Man (1876), a famous study that attributed criminal behavior to what he termed Ã¢â¬Å"atavism,Ã¢â¬ an inherited condition that made offenders evolutionary throwbacks to more primitive humans. By conducting autopsies on 66 deceased criminals, and comparing 832 living prison inmates with 390 soldiers, Lombroso created a list of physical features that he believed were associated with criminal behavior. These Ã¢â¬Å"stigmataÃ¢â¬ included sloping foreheads, asymmetrical faces, large jaws, receding chins, abundant wrinkles, extra fingers, toes, and nipples, long arms, short legs, and excessive body hair-hardly the image of handsome men. The notion that criminal behavior was related to physical anomalies was dealt a severe blow by the publication of Charles B. GoringÃ¢â¬â¢s The English Convict in 1913. This study subjected 37 of LombrosoÃ¢â¬â¢s stigmata to empirical testing by comparing 2,348 London convicts to a control group that represented a cross section of young Englishmen. Goring found little support for LombrosoÃ¢â¬â¢s arguments, concluding that criminal behavior is caused by inherited feeblemindedness, not physical appearance. Undaunted by these results, Harvard anthropologist Earnest A. Hooton conducted an ambitious 12-year study that compared 13,873 male prisoners in 10 states with a haphazard sample of 3,023 men drawn from the general population, searching once more for physical differences. Hooton published his findings in The American Criminal and Crime and the Man, both books appearing in 1939. The books attributed criminal behavior to biological inferiority and Ã¢â¬Å"degeneration,Ã¢â¬ ascribing a variety of unattractive physical characteristics to criminals (including sloping foreheads, compressed facial features, drooping eyelids, small, protruding ears, projecting cheekbones, narrow jaws, pointy chins, and rounded shoulders). By the 1930s, however, biological research was rapidly losing favor, as criminologists increasingly argued that social factors alone cause criminal behavior. HootonÃ¢â¬â¢s research was ridiculed in particular, one sociologist dismissing his findings as comically inept in historic proportions (or Ã¢â¬Å"the funniest academic performanceÃ¢â¬ ¦ since the invention of movable typeÃ¢â¬ [Reuter 1939]). Hooton was condemned for his circular reasoning: offenders were assumed to be biologically inferior, so whatever features differentiated criminals from noncriminals were interpreted as indications of biological inferiority. Despite the skepticism of many sociologists regarding these attempts to link physical unattractiveness to criminal conduct, self-derogation and general strain theories can explain this relationship. Self-derogation theory asserts that youth who are ridiculed by peers lose self-esteem and the motivation to conform (Kaplan 1980). General strain theory claims that repeated Ã¢â¬Å"noxious,Ã¢â¬ unwanted interactions produce disappointment, depression, frustration, and anger (Agnew 1992). Both theories see delinquency and crime as means of retaliation that boosts oneÃ¢â¬â¢s self-worth or vents oneÃ¢â¬â¢s anger. Certainly, unattractive youths are prime candidates for noxious ridicule that results in low self-esteem and emotional strain. Only a handful of modern studies have tested the relationships among attractiveness, criminal behavior, and perceptions about crime. Saladin, Saper, and Breen (1988), for example, asked 28 students in one undergraduate psychology class to judge the physical attractiveness of a group of photographs of young men. Forty students in another psychology class were asked to examine the same photographs and then assess the probability that those pictured would commit either robbery or murder. The researchers found that men rated as less attractive also were perceived to be prone to commit future violent crimes, suggesting that unattractive people are more likely to be branded as criminals. Another study randomly scrambled 159 photographs of young men incarcerated in juvenile reformatories with 134 photographs of male high school seniors (Cavior and Howard 1973). College sophomores in psychology courses were asked to rate the facial attractiveness of these youth. Significantly more high school seniors were judged attractive than males from the reformatories. In the fascinating policy-oriented research that became the basis for the movie Johnny Handsome, surgeons performed plastic surgery to correct deformities and disfigurements (e. g. , protruding ears, broken noses, unsightly tattoos, and needle track marks from intravenous drug use) on the faces, hands, and arms of 100 physically unattractive men at the time of their release from Rikers Island jail in New York City (Kurtzberg et al. 1978). These ex-convicts were matched against a control group of equally unattractive inmates released from the jail who received no reconstructive surgery. When the researchers compared recidivism rates one-year later, those who received the surgery had significantly fewer rearrests. Apparently, improved appearance resulted in improved behavior. These research findings are preliminary and suggestive; more definitive studies using better measurements are needed. In particular, future research should relate ratings of physical attractiveness to the self-reported riminal behavior of persons taken from the general population. Such studies would rule out the possibility that unattractive offenders are more likely to appear in jails and reformatories simply due to the prejudices of the police and prosecutors. Nevertheless, existing research hints that the folk wisdom dating back to the ancient Greeks may have some basis in reality. Physical appearance is related to self-worth and behavior; as th e adage goes, Ã¢â¬Å"pretty is as pretty does. Ã¢â¬ When it comes to criminal behavior, the opposite may be true as well. How to cite Physical Attractiveness and Criminal Behavior, Papers
Friday, May 1, 2020
How far do Waltons letters prepare us for the tale which is about to unfold Essay Example For Students
How far do Waltons letters prepare us for the tale which is about to unfold? Essay Mary Shelleys Frankenstein is written in several different narrative frames, the first being Captain Robert Waltons letters to his sister in England, whilst he is on a voyage of discovery to the North Pole. He relates the sightings of the creature and the discovery of Victor Frankenstein in his letters. At the end of the final letter, Walton introduces Victors tale, and we are then assured that the main narrator throughout the novel will be Walton, and that the tale of Victor (and later the tale of the creation) will be related through him. This theme of listening happens to be ongoing throughout the novel. Frankensteins creation tells him: Listen to my tale: when you have heard that, abandon or commiserate me, as you shall judge that I deserve. But hear me. The guilty are allowed, by human laws, bloody as they are, to speak in their own defence before they are condemned. Listening to stories is the essential ingredient to the future success of each of the characters in this novel. We can derive from his letters that Waltons values and morals arent ideal, but from listening to the story of Victor Frankenstein, we assume that Walton can reassess his life and change its course. The telling of stories allows another perspective to be taken into account. Later in the novel we find out that if Victor had heard the tale of his creation before he judged and rejected it, things would have been very different. If the moral in a story is accurately transferred, then the listeners then have the option of rectifying their mistakes and setting themselves back on track. What remains to be seen of course is if the characters identify this opportunity and make use of it. Mary Shelleys Frankenstein fits into the genre of Gothic Horror. In Waltons first letter, even his sister had anticipated his journey with evil forebodings. This is typically gothic; it is daunting and incites trepidation in the reader. We also find out Waltons aims and aspirations, and the plans for his voyage of discovery. Walton seems to be very self-satisfied with his plans, and we get the feeling of pride when he says: I shall satiate my ardent curiosity with the sight of a part of the world never before visited, and may tread a land never before imprinted by the foot of man. Of course this is the typical use of dramatic irony in the Victorian era when pride comes before a fall was a phrase commonly used. This stimulates a feeling of gothic foreboding in the reader, a kind of preparation for what is to come. There is much gothic typicality in the fourth letter, when at the beginning of his story Frankenstein proclaims: Prepare to hear of occurrences which are usually deemed marvellous. Waltons last comment in letter four is equally foreboding: Strange and harrowing must be his story, frightful the storm which embraced the gallant vessel on its course and wrecked it thus! I think these statements are small insights to the tale that is about to unfold they prepare us for the horror of Victors story.
Saturday, March 21, 2020
Leccion 1-5 Este dia de clase comenzo como los demas, la primera clase fue impartida por Andrea Flores y Sebastian, por lo que vi a los alfabetizados les gusta como da la clase Andrea. A la segunda hora Marvin Zelaya y Kenbely les preguntaron a sus companeros si ellos podian dar las clases ya que el companero Marvin queria impartir clase. Luego de consultarlo los companeros decidieron que si, la forma en la que ellos iban impartiendo la clase pues se vio que los alfabetizados se animaban e interactuaban mas en la clase. Hubo un momento durante clase que todos contestaron al mismo tiempo y se vio bonito porque se veia que estaban prestando atencion. A la ultima hora como unos 5 minutos antes de que tocara el timbre todos guardamos las cosas y se realizo una pequena evaluacion, para ver que puntuacion le daban los alfabetizantes a los facilitadores y los resultados fueron muy satisfactorios. Leccion 6-10 Este sabado todo estamos un poco ansiosos ya que estamos a dos sabados de terminar alfabetizacion. Creo que de la misma emocion los facilitadores se animaron y pusieron mas entusiasmo a la hora de impartir las clases. La primera hora la comenzamos y fue impartida por Carlos Avila y Gabriel Salinas, esta vez Hepzi se vio mas suelta a la hora de impartir la clase mientras Gabriel le ayudaba escribiendo en la pizarra, fue una clase muy tranquila. La segunda hora la impartieron Diego Lopez y Katia Rapalo, este dia no fue la excepcion para Katia otra vez se lucio dando clases ya que a ella le encanta impartir una clase y los alfabetizantes participaron mucho. La tercera hora fue impartida por Kenbely Castillo y Marvin Zelaya los cuales destacan por su dinamica a la hora de dar las clases ya que motivan a todos a participar y fue una clase muy exitosa la verdad. La cuarta y quinta hora fueron impartidas por Fernando Zuniga, Andrea Flores, Sebastian y Andrea Dominguez, ellos como los demas fueron muy dinamicos e hicieron reir mucho a los alfabetizantes ya para terminar la ultima hora. Leccion 10-15 Este sabado era como los demas solo que la emocion se habia aumentado ya que era el penultimo sabado antes de culminar alfabetizacion. A la primera hora de clases hubo unos minutos en los cuales en toda la clase se escucharon comentarios referentes a que ya ibamos a terminar este proceso, pero luego arrancamos a dar las clases como siempre. La primera hora la impartieron Katia y Andrea Flores una clase muy dinamica todos pusieron atencion como siempre. La segunda hora la impartieron Marvin y Gabriela Paz esta vez Gabriela se vio con un aire distinto se vio bien dinamica e impartio una buena clase con Marvin el cual hizo una excelente participacion. La tercera hora fue impartida por Carlos Avila y Gabriel Salinas en esta hora se noto el esfuerzo y empeno de uno de nuestros companeros que fue la de Carlos que estaba muy enfermo pero aun asi decidio dar la clase sin importarle su malestar, la clase fue impartida por mucha tranquilidad y no hubo ningun inconveniente. La cuarta horas fue impartida por Hepzi y Daniel los cuales como siempre dieron lo mejor de ello dando la clase. La quinta hora la impartio Andrea Dominguez y Katherine Rivera, ella dos se esforzaron en dar una clase entretenida y a la vez despejaron cualquier duda que alguien tuviese.
Thursday, March 5, 2020
Chemistry Pick Up Lines to Try on Your Crush Ã¢â¬â¹The best chemistry pickup line is sure to set off the reaction for chemical attraction! Here is a collection of cute, corny, funny, and possibly even effective chemistry pick up lines. For best effect, wear a lab coat while delivering a chemistry pick-up line. Safety goggles may help you out, but wearing disposable gloves might come across as creepy. If you really want to make an impression, learn a few science magic tricks. Who wouldnt be impressed by your ability to breathe fire or make glowing drinks? Are you made of copper and tellurium? Because youre CuTe.Do you have 11 protons? Cause youre sodium fine.Are you a carbon sample? Because I want to date you.You must be made of uranium and iodine because all I can see is U and I together.Forget hydrogen, youre my number one element.If I was an enzyme, Id be DNA helicase so I could unzip your genes.Chemists do it on the table periodically.Youre like an exothermic reaction. You spread hotness everywhere.Are you made of Fluorine, Iodine, and Neon? Cause you are F-I-Ne.If I had a choice between DNA and RNA, Id choose RNA because it has U in it.Hey baby, Ive got my ion you!According to the Second Law of Thermodynamics, you are supposed to share your hotness with me.You must be a compound of barium and beryllium because youre a total BaBe.Youre hotter than a Bunsen burner turned up all the way.Hey baby, would a little more alcohol catalyze this reaction?I wish I was adenine so I could get paired with U.Your body must be made of oxygen and neon because you are the ONe. You must be chlorine cause you are polarizing my bond.How about we go back to my place and form a covalent bond?If you were an element youd be Francium because youre the most attractive.You are a photon quanta to my valence electron because you excite me to a higher energy level.My favorite attractive force is van der Waals force. Can you feel it? Ill move closer if you cant.You make me hotter than sulfur hydroxide mixed with ethyl acetate.When Im near you I undergo anaerobic respiration because baby, you take my breath away.Im so strongly attracted to you, scientists will have to discover a fifth fundamental force.Lets find our combined volume by displacing the liquid in my waterbed.We have such great chemistry that we should do some biology together.You are the HCl to my NaOH. With our sweet love, we could make an ocean together.Lets get together sometime. You bring your beaker and Ill bring my stirring rod.I want to stick to you like glucose.Are you made of beryllium, gold, and ti tanium? You must be because you are BeAuTi-ful. Are you into science? Because I LAB you!Are you a non-volatile particle? Because you raise my boiling point.Scientists have recently discovered a rare new element called Beautium. It looks like you are made of it.You must be the acid to my litmus paper because every time I meet you I turn bright red.Could you tell me the oxidation state of this atom and your phone number?My name? Its Bond. Covalent Bond.Honey, were a galvanic cell. Cant you feel the electricity flowing between us?You must be a good benzene ring because you are pleasantly aromatic.How about we slip between my beta-pleated sheets and you get to know my alpha-helix?
Tuesday, February 18, 2020
No line sources - Essay Example God showed his blessings to humanity by choosing Abraham since the divine nature bestowed on him finally resulted in a huge clan, fastened by the twelve sons of Jacob, who considered the God of Abraham as their supporter and guardian. JacobÃ¢â¬â¢s son hawked their young sibling, Joseph to dealers, who in turn hawked him as a slave in the Egyptian land. This was GodÃ¢â¬â¢s work and plan since there came a time where there was famine in the land of Canaan and all the family was forced to go to Egypt to buy food. Unfortunately, Joseph rescued his family by providing them with food. This was a pure indicator of GoodÃ¢â¬â¢s mercies to bless humanity. God promised Abraham that he will give him a son at his old age. The promises were finally fulfilled when he gave out his son at the old age. The son was Isaac and through his lineage, the world has turned to be a place of blessings. Through Abraham, God has made the world to turn to Him once more, despite the rejection and ignorance of mankind (Genesis 12:5-10). From the story of exodus, when God delivered his people from the land of suffering and misery to the Promised Land, it was an indicator that God was working to bless all humanity through the promises. This was also one of the promises that God gave to Abraham that He will give his people land to dwell in. this was a sign of blessings. The covenant also that God made to Moses, for example giving His people Ten Commandments to guide them through their life to avoid evils. The purification of his people on Mount Sinai was a significant indicator of GodÃ¢â¬â¢s effort to bless his people (Exodus 5:3-12). God also showed blessing to the humanity through King David. David let known himself in the battle with the philistines at this period. When Saul and his son died, David was in position to assume leadership. He created an administrative center in Jerusalem that overextended from the boundary of Egypt